The Eye of Horus
The Udjat eye represents the eye of the god Horus which was torn from his head by the storm god Seth. It is a composite of the human eye and the markings of a falcon’s eye and was used as an amulet against injury.
The ancient Egyptians observed Scarab beetles rolling the balls of dung, in which they lay their eggs, and bury underground. They thought the sun was rolled around the sky in the same way, and like the ball of dung, the sun descended down into the under world each night. As the ball of dung gave birth to another generation of beetles so the sun was reborn each morning bringing warmth and life to the earth.
The Egyptians called Scarab beetles Khepera. He was the god representing regeneration, new life, virility and resurrection.
He was sometimes shown with outstretched wings but the most common forms were the little amulets worn as ornaments or buried with the dead. The reverse of the Scarab is often inscribed with name of kings, and these were made and worn as much as a thousand years after the death of the kings whose names they bear. Many of the kings themselves took the name of Kheper as part of their own name.
For example Tutankhamun’s throne-name was Neb Kheperu Ra. This means ‘The Lord of forms is Ra’ this is the name the people of his time would have known him by. The name Tutankhamun is more personal and less important.
Devourer of the Dead – Ammut, a female, was an extravagantly imagined creature, depicted as part crocodile, part lioness, and part hippopotamus. She was often shown near the scales on which the hearts of the dead were weighed against the feather of Truth. She devoured the hearts of those whose wicked deeds in life made them unfit to enter the afterlife.