Egyptian Dynasties New Kingdom

Egyptian Dynasties New Kingdom 1550 – 1069 BC

Eighteenth Dynasty 1550 – 1295 BC
Egypt was reborn with the advent of the New Kingdom. The Theban kings expelled the Hyksos and the Egyptian army pushed beyond its traditional borders into Palestine and Syria. The administration was reformed into a dynamic system of royal appointments with officials selected on merit and a period of unprecedented success in international affairs followed. A huge empire was created that brought material wealth and new ideas into Egypt.

A succession of extraordinarily able kings and queens laid the foundations of a strong Egypt and bequeathed a prosperous economy to the kings of the nineteenth dynasty. Ahmose expelled the Hyksos, Thutmose I’s conquered the Near East and Nubia; Queen Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III, who made Egypt into the first super power; the magnificent Amenhotep III, who began an artistic revolution; Akhenaton and Nefertiti, who began a religious revolution by adopting the concept of one god; and finally, Tutankhamen, who has become so famous in our modern age.

  • Ahmose 1550-1525
  • Amenhotep I1525-1504
  • Thutmose I 1504-1492
  • Thutmose II 1492-1479
  • Hatshepsut 1479-1425
  • Thutmose III 1479-1425
  • Amenhotep II 1427-1400
  • Thutmose IV 1400-1390
  • Amenhotep III 1390-1352
  • Amenhotep IV(Akhenaten) 1352-1336
  • Smenkhkare 1338-1336
  • Tutankhamun 1336-1327
  • Ay 1327-1323
  • Horemheb 1323-1295

Nineteenth Dynasty 1295 – 1186 BC
Seti I’s reign looked for its model to the mid-18th dynasty and was a time of considerable prosperity. He restored countless monuments. His temple at Abydos exhibits some of the finest carved wall reliefs. His son Rameses II is the major figure of the dynasty. Around this time the Hittites had become a dominant Asiatic power. An uneasy balance of power developed between the two kingdoms, which was punctuated by wars and treaties.

By now Egypt was an ethnically pluralistic society and this is reflected in a diversity of artistic expression. Unfortunately the tide of history was turning and Rameses son, Merenptah had to struggle to maintain Egypt’s prestige.

  • Rameses I 1295-1294
  • Seti I 1294-1279
  • Rameses II 1279-1213
  • Merenptah 1213-1203
  • Amenmessu 1203-1200
  • Sety II 1200-1194
  • Saptah 1194-1188
  • Tausret 1188-1186

Twentieth Dynasty 1186 – 1069 BC
Setnakht ruled for only a few years but restored order after a period of chaos. His son Rameses III was the last great king. He gave Egypt a final moment of glory by defeating Sea Peoples who had utterly destroyed Hittite Empire and swept all before them on their march south.
After Rameses III, Egypt began to suffer economic problems and a break down in the fabric of society. She was unable to exploit the revolution of the Iron Age and there followed a succession of kings all called Rameses. Perhaps this was a vain attempt to recapture past glories.

  • Setnakht 1186-1184
  • Rameses III 1184-1153
  • Rameses IV 1153-1147
  • Rameses V 1147-1143
  • Rameses VI 1143-1136
  • Rameses VII 1136-1129
  • Rameses VIII 1129-1126
  • Rameses IX 1126-1108
  • Rameses X 1108-1099
  • Rameses XI 1099-1069

Third Intermediate Period 1069 – 747 BC

Twenty First Dynasty 1069 – 945 BC
Smendes proclaimed himself king after the death of Rameses XI, and ruled from Tanis in the Delta. The country was eventually divided between the kings and the high priests of Amun at Thebes.

  • Smendes 1069-1043
  • Amenemnesu 1043-1039
  • Psusennes I 1039-991
  • Amenernipet 993-984
  • Osorkon 984-978
  • Siamun 978-959
  • Psusennes II 959-945

Twenty Second Dynasty 945 – 715 BC
Egypt was ruled for the next 200 years by kings of Libyan origin. Shoshenk (Shishak of the Bible) reunited the countries divided factions. Following the death of Solomon of Israel, Shoshenk moved against Jerusalem and defeated the kingdoms of Judah and Israel. He finally halted at Megiddo, the site of Thutmose III’s victories some five hundred years before.

  • Shoshenk I 945-924
  • Osorkon I 924-889
  • Shoshenk II 890
  • Takelot I 889-874
  • Osorkon II 874-850
  • Takelot II 850-825
  • Shoshenk III 825-773
  • Pimay 773-767
  • Shoshenk V 767-730
  • Osorkon IV 730-715

Twentieth Third Dynasty 818 – 715 BC
During the reign of Shoshenk III, a prince called Pedubast proclaimed himself king in the central Delta at Leontopolis. Thus, there were two dynasties ruling at the same time: The twenty-second at Tanis and the twenty-third at Leontopolis.
The situation became even more confusing when yet a third man claimed to be king. The weak government that resulted allowed the Nubians to exert a strong influence in southern Egypt.
Kings at Leontopolis

  • Pedubast I 818-793
  • Iuput I
  • Shoshenk IV 780
  • Osorkon III 777-749

Twentieth Fourth Dynasty 727 – 715 BC
The Kings at Sais attempted to counter the Nubian threat by forming a coalition but the attempt failed.

  • Tefnakht
  • Bakenrenef

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Egyptian Dynasties New Kingdom